Reducing the power of trade unions


Changing conditions of the eighties and nineties of the XX century undermined the position of organized labor unions and employees, who now represent a shrinking share of the labor force. If in 1945, more than one third of employees were union members, in 1979 the number of union members has decreased to 24.1 percent of the US workforce, and in 1998 it further decreased and was only 13.9 per cent of all the country’s workforce. In the sphere of political power by increasing revenues from union dues, making the continuation of trade unions funds in political campaigns and the tireless efforts of trade unionists to secure votes was saved from these organizations as significant losses suffered by their rank and file members. However, court decisions and conclusions of the National Labor Relations Board, allowing workers and employees do not pay the portion of their union dues, which is used to support political candidates or fight against them, undermined the influence of trade unions.
Experiencing fierce competition at home and abroad, the management now takes less willing to join a trade union demands for higher wages and benefits than in past decades. In addition, it began much more active in the fight against the trade union attempts to increase its membership by recruiting employees. In the eighties and nineties of the last century often strike broke out, because when the unions went on strike, employers have become more willing to hire strikebreakers and leave them at work after the strike. (Employers have become bolder and more determined to act in this direction in 1981 when President Ronald Reagan fired striking air traffic controllers illegally employed by the Federal Aviation Administration).
Constant problem for union members is the ongoing automation. Many of the old mills and factories switched to automatic labor-saving equipment to cope with the tasks previously performed by workers. The unions have tried (not always successfully) to take various measures to protect the jobs and incomes of workers, such as free training, reduction of the working week, task allocation and provision of guaranteed annual income.
The shift towards employment in the service sector, where unions have traditionally occupied a weak position, and became for them a serious problem. Women, young people, temporary workers and workers employed part-time, (all these categories are less willing to enter into trade unions) make up a large proportion of workers in new jobs created in recent years. Moreover, a significant part of American industry moved to the southern and western parts of the United States, representing the regions in which there is a weaker union tradition than in the northern and eastern regions of the country.
To all these difficulties years publicizing the negative aspects of activity are corrupt unions, especially the large Teamsters union, which crippled the labor movement. Even past successes unions in raising wages and increasing the size and benefits, as well as in the improvement of working conditions have become an obstacle to further gains, making new and young workers to come to the conclusion that in order to defend their interests they no longer need unions. Arguments of the last that they give workers the opportunity to express their views on almost all aspects of their work, including safety in the manufacture and supply of complaints of non-observance of normal operating conditions, are often overlooked. Independently minded young workers, initiating the emergence and unprecedented growth firms employing high computer technology, have little interest in belonging to organizations that, according to these workers, take away their independence.
However, the most compelling reason for the difficulties in the late nineties of the last century, unions have faced in the process of attracting new members, perhaps, was the remarkable stability of the economy. In October and November 1999, the proportion of unemployed fell to 4.1 percent. Economists argue that the unemployed in this period were the only people transition from one job to another, or long-term unemployed. Despite all the uncertainties resulting from changes in the economy, an abundance of jobs restored faith in the fact that America is still a country of opportunities.

The new labor force


In the period from 1950 until the last months of 1999 the total number of employed in non-agricultural sectors increased from 45 million to 129.5 million. The largest employment growth was observed in the computer sector, the health sector and other sectors of the service sector, as information technology has played an increasingly important role in the US economy. In the eighties and nineties of the XX century the number of jobs in the sector of services, including the service sector, transportation, public utilities, wholesale and retail trade, finance, insurance, real estate and government work, has increased by 35 million, accounting for all net increase in the number of jobs in these two decades. Employment growth in the service sector has absorbed labor resources released as a result of increase in labor productivity in the manufacturing industry.
In 1946, on the industry related to the service sector accounted for 24, 4 million jobs, or 59 per cent of employment in non-agricultural sectors. By the end of 1999, the number of jobs in this sector has increased to 104.3 million, or 81 per cent of employment in non-agricultural sectors. Conversely, in 1946 the production of the goods sector, which includes manufacturing, construction and mining, to ensure that 17.2 million jobs, or 41 per cent of employment in non-agricultural areas, but in late 1999, this number had increased to only 25 2 million and made up 19 percent of employment in non-agricultural areas. However, many of these new jobs in the service sector workers did not receive the same high wages and an equally significant and benefits, as in the manufacturing industry. As a result, many families arose tense financial situation has prompted many women to go to work.
In the eighties and nineties of the last century, many employers have moved to new methods of organizing their workforce. In some companies of employees combined in small groups and provide them with considerable independence in the performance of their tasks. If management puts in front of these groups of workers defined tasks and to monitor the progress of work and its outcomes, the group of workers themselves decide among themselves how to do their jobs better and how to adjust its strategy in the changing needs of customers and the general working conditions and market . However, many other employers do not want to abandon traditional methods of manual work performed. There were those for whom the transition to new management practices proved difficult. The conclusions of the National Labor Relations Board that many groups of workers employed not having trade unions are illegal “trade unions”, in which the dominant position occupied leadership, often became an obstacle to the changes taking place.
Furthermore, in the eighties and nineties of the XX century employers had to deal with an increasing diversity of the labor force. In the labor force wide stream new ethnic groups, especially Hispanics and immigrants from various Asian countries, and more and more women began to take jobs where once dominant position traditionally held by men. Constantly growing number of workers go to court accusing employers in conducting discriminatory policy towards employees based on their race, gender, age or disability. The number of cases examined by the Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, which is the first instance that receives similar complaints, increased from about 6900 in 1991 to over 16,000 in 1998, and the courts are choked with an abundance of cases. Accepted by the courts for legal claims related to discrimination at work or service, were mixed. Many of these claims were rejected as unfounded, but at the same time, the courts have recognized the need for a wide range of remedies against abuses in hiring, promotion, demotion and dismissal.
The question of “equal pay for equal work” is still relevant when it comes to working conditions in America. Despite the fact that the federal and state law prohibit the establishment of different rates of pay depending on gender, historically, that women receive for their work less than men. Part of the difference in pay arises from the fact that relatively more women are employed in such work (many women work in the service sector), where traditionally paid less than other places. However, trade unions and women’s rights argue that it also reflected the existence of direct discrimination. To further complicate the matter phenomenon observed among employees and technical workers, and known as the “glass ceiling”. This refers to an invisible barrier that, in the opinion of some women, not giving them the opportunity to advance her career and take up positions of responsibility in companies and a high position in a professional environment, dominated by men. In recent years, women have come to occupy more and more of these posts, but they still lag far behind the stronger sex, if you take into account their share in the total population.
Similar problems arise when it comes to pay and positions of different ethnic and racial groups, often called “minorities” because they are a minority in the total population. (At the end of the XX century, most Americans were the white people of European origin; however, their share in the total population is constantly decreasing). Besides laws prohibiting discrimination in the sixties and seventies of the last century the federal government and many states have adopted laws on “positive action”, requiring that in certain circumstances in hiring employers favored minorities. Proponents of such laws have argued that minorities should be given preference in compensation for long years of discrimination against them in the past. However, this idea was controversial approach to addressing racial and ethnic issues. Critics of “affirmative action,” complained that “reverse discrimination” is unfair and leads to undesirable consequences. In the nineties of the XX century, some states, such as California, have refused “affirmative action.” Nevertheless, there is still a wage gap between whites and minorities, as well as the big difference between them in the unemployment rate. Along with controversial issues concerning the place of women among workers and employees, there remain a number of other most burning problems faced by US employers and to employees.
In the eighties and nineties of the last century the general tension that resulted in many companies takes measures to reduce costs, has led to further aggravation of the situation, coupled with the presence of the wage gap based on gender, race or ethnic origin. In fact, the workers and employees and their trade unions in large fighting for their survival firms felt that they would have to make concessions in respect of his wages – reducing the size of its increase or even decrease it – in the hope of greater job security or even save their employers. Some airlines and some other companies the two-tier wage scale at which new workers receive for the same job paid less than the old. Increasingly salary now set not to serve the equal remuneration of employees for their work of equal value, and in order to attract and retain employees, in which there was a shortage, such as, for example, specialists in computer software. This situation further contributed to the growth of the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers. There is no any direct measurement of the gap, but the statistics of the Ministry of Labor US allow for a visual comparison of said indirect difference in salary. In 1979, average weekly earnings ranged from US $ 215 for workers and employees who have graduated from high school, to 348 dollars for workers and employees who have graduated from college. In 1998, the gap in question, was in the range from 337 dollars to 821 US dollars.
Even in the face of increasing wage gap many employers fought for raising the minimum wage set by the federal government. They argued that the lower limit set by the wage is detrimental to workers and employees by increasing labor costs and thereby impedes the hiring of new employees in small enterprises. If in the seventies of last century, the minimum wage has grown each year, in the eighties and nineties of the same century there were only a few very rare increases. As a result, the minimum wage did not keep up with the rising cost of living; from 1970 until the last months of 1999, the minimum wage rose by 55 percent (from US $ 1.45 per hour to 5.15 US dollars per hour), while consumer prices rose by 334 per cent. Employers also are increasingly moving to a system of payday on the final results of work based wage rises on the performance of specific individuals or their units, instead of equally increase wages for all workers.
As an increasing shortage of skilled workers, employers and employees pay more attention to the training and spent her more money. They also accelerated the improvement of the quality of educational programs in schools, in order to better prepare their graduates for working conditions with the use of modern high technology. Regional groups of employers to address training in collaboration with local and technical colleges who organized the work of relevant courses. Meanwhile, in 1998 the federal government enacted the Act to invest in training for workers, which strengthened and brought to a common denominator of 100 training programs for personnel working with federal departments and divisions of the state, as well as economic entities, organizations and businesses. The adoption of this law is an attempt to link the training of personnel to the actual needs of employers and give more rights to the last part in the drafting and implementation of these programs.
At the same time, employers have also sought to ensure that to meet the wishes of the workers and employees bridge the gap between the demands of their work and the necessary conditions for their personal lives. There was widespread flexible work schedules that provide to employees the opportunity to freely dispose of their working time and to choose their own hours of work. Recent advances in the development of technologies of communication systems allow an increasing number of employees’ work in absentia “, ie, at least in part, to work at home, using computers connected to their place of work. Satisfying the demands of working mothers and other employees interested in working part-time, employers have applied such innovations such as workplace division between several employees. Government acceded to this trend by adopting in 1993 the Law on family holiday on the birth of the child and family leave, which requires employers to provide their employees for hire holiday in case they have a family emergency.

The eighties and nineties of the XX century: the end of paternalism


In the forties, fifties and sixties of the last century, despite taking place from time to time and hassle of a strike, the company and the unions basically established between a stable relationship.
Such stable relationships depended on a stable economy in which labor skills and products vary only slightly, or at least slow enough to hiring workers and employers could relatively easily adapt to these changes. However, during the sixties and seventies of last century, the relationship between unions and their member workers employment became very strained. Began reducing American dominance in the global industrial economy. When the United States mass flow surged cheaper and sometimes better, more foreign-made products, American companies are not able to respond quickly to this phenomenon is improving the quality of their products. Constructed from top-down management structure of US companies do not encourage innovation, and these companies are sometimes caught in a hopeless situation, when trying to reduce labor costs by improving efficiency or reducing wages, to relegate it to the level of wages received by unskilled workers in a number of foreign countries.
In some cases, American companies reacted to the influx of cheap foreign goods by simply closing their factories and transferring production abroad. It was all the easier to do this because in the eighties and nineties of the XX century trading and tax laws. Many other companies have continued to operate, but the paternalistic system began to falter. Employers felt that we are no longer able to take on such obligations in respect of their workers, which would operate throughout their working lives. Aiming at increasing flexibility and reducing costs, entrepreneurs are increasingly used temporary workers labor or workers employed part-time. In 1982 the firm to provide temporary assistance provided 417,000 workers employed or 0.5 per cent of employment in non-agricultural sectors (according to the payroll). By 1998, these companies have provided 2.8 million jobs, or 2.1 percent of the labor force not employed in agriculture. There was a change in the length of the working week. Sometimes workers achieved its reduction, but often of reduced number of working hours in order to reduce labor costs and the payment of various benefits. In 1968, 14 percent of employees worked less than 35 hours per week. In 1994, the figure was 18.9 percent.
As already noted, many employers have moved to the creation of pension systems in which responsibility is increasingly transferred to employees. Some of the workers and employees welcomed these changes and then increase the flexibility which they were accompanied. Yet, for many workers mentioned changes meant only insecurity. Trade unions could do little to restore the old paternalistic relationship between employer and employee recruitment. Trade unions could only help its members in their efforts to adapt to new conditions.
In the eighties and nineties of the last century, the total number of union members has decreased, the latter made modest progress in the creation of new jobs. Union activists complained that labor legislation is directed against them and gives employers too much freedom to form trade unions and to avoid dealing with them.

Depression and the victory of the postwar period


The Great Depression of the thirties of the XX century has changed the opinion of Americans on trade unions. Despite the fact that due to the mass unemployment the number of members of the AFL was reduced to less than 3 million, widespread economic hardship caused sympathy for the working man. In the worst periods of depression, about one third of the working population of America had tremendous figure for the country in which only ten years ago, there was full employment. Since his election in 1932 to the post of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s government – and gradually, and the courts – have become more sympathetic consideration to the requests of workers and employees. In 1932, Congress passed one of the first laws protecting the rights of the working person, the Norris-LaGuardia, who admitted that “yellow liabilities” can not be forced. The law also limited the powers of the federal courts to halt strikes and other work-related actions.
When Roosevelt took office, he pushed for the adoption of a number of important laws that serve the workers’ cause. One of them is the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (also known as the Wagner Act) gave workers the right to join unions and conclude collective agreements with employers through representatives of their union. This law provided for the establishment of the National Directorate of Labour Relations (NUVTO), whose responsibilities included the punishment of employers resorting to unfair practices in the field of labor relations, and the organization of elections in cases where workers are self-employed are willing to create a particular union. NUVTO could force employers to pay salaries retroactively to employees in the event of unfair dismissal for participating in union activities.
With this support, by 1940 the number of union members has increased dramatically, reaching almost 9 million. However, the expansion of lists of union members took place in conditions of increasing difficulty. In 1935, eight members of the trade unions of the AFL-CIO created a Committee (PPC) to unionization of workers in industries such mass production, as the automotive and steel industries. Supporters said the eight unions wanted to combine both within the trade unions of workers of a company, regardless of whether they are skilled or unskilled workers. Craft unions, controlled the AFL opposed efforts to unite the unskilled workers and low-skilled workers, preferring to work still united by a shop principle in the various industries. However, thanks to the active actions PPC managed unionized workers of many factories. In 1938, the AFL has excluded from its members unions formed the CIO. PPC quickly established its own federation, using the new name, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which became a worthy competitor to the AFL.
After the entry of the United States into World War II leading trade union leaders have promised not to interrupt the work strikes the defense industry of the country. In addition, the government established control over wages, frozen its increase. However, workers have made significant progress in improving the system of additional payments, especially in the area of health insurance. During this period, dramatically increased the number of union members.
When in 1945 the war ended, the unions refused promise not to hold strikes and became the strongest terms to demand higher wages. In many industries, strikes began, and in 1946 breaks and downtime reached the highest level. The public is strongly opposed failures work and what many considered the excessive power of the trade unions, which they have acquired as a result of the adoption of the Wagner Act. In 1947, Congress enacted the regulation of labor relations, better known as the Taft-Hartley Act, overcome the veto imposed on him by President Harry Truman. This law prescribed norms of behavior of unions and workers employed. He banned “closed company”, ie businesses that hire only union members; the law in question, gave permission for entrepreneurs to levy fines against unions to cover the damages caused during the strike; In addition, he demanded that the unions so that they, before starting to strike, observed 60 days, allowing them to “cool down”, and entered other special rules in respect of strikes that threaten the welfare and security of the country. Taft-Hartley Act also required the disclosure of the trade unions of their financial activities. In light of this sharp transition to the offensive on workers AFL and CIO ceased to fight with each other and, ultimately, merged in 1955 to form the AFL-CIO.
In 1962, the trade unions have found a number of new powers, when President John F. Kennedy issued an order to the chief executive, to provide employees of the federal authorities the right to unionize and bargain collectively (but not on strike). States have received similar legislation, and some states even allowed their employees of government agencies to strike. At the federal level, state level and local level began to grow rapidly unions of government employees. In the seventies of the last century, when high inflation threatened significant erosion of wages, many states and cities, the police, teachers and other government workers resorted to strikes.
In the sixties and seventies of the XX century the number of union members among black Americans, Mexican Americans and women. Union leaders helped these groups, which are often accepted only on the low-paid jobs, get higher wages.

The initial period of the labor movement


Many laws and programs aimed at improving the lives of working people in America, appeared for several decades, starting in the thirties of the last century, when the American labor movement gained and strengthened their political influence. The rise of the labor movement was not easy; more than half a century this movement had to fight to uphold its position in the US economy.
In contrast to the working groups in other countries, US unions have sought to conduct its activities within the framework of the existing system of free enterprise, a strategy that caused the upset of the socialists. The United States did not know of feudalism, and very few of the working people believed that they had participated in the class struggle. Most workers simply believed that fighting for the assertion of their rights to a success, and would like to have these rights to the same extent in which they had the other. Another factor contributing to the smoothing of class antagonism, is the fact that US workers – at least white workers – were granted the right to vote before the workers of other countries.
As the labor movement is largely confined to the area of industry, trade union organizers had limited opportunities to recruit potential union members. The first major national labor organization was the organization “Knights of Labor”, founded in 1869, cutters of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and aims to organizational unification of all workers in struggle for their general welfare. By 1886 “Knights” had a total of about 700 000 members, including blacks, women wage workers, traders and farmers. However, these groups often pursued different interests. Therefore, members of the movement “Knights of Labor” were united by one common goal, which prevented them from acting together. In the mid-eighties of the XIX century “Knights” won in the strike action against railroads owned American millionaire Jay Gould in 1886 but lost the second strike against the same railways. Soon the number of members of this organization fell sharply.
In 1881, an immigrant who was engaged in the manufacture of cigars, Samuel Gompers called along with other skilled workers organized a federation of trade unions, which five years later became the American Federation of Labor (AFL). The composition of its members were only hired workers, and they were organized by a shop principle. Gompers became its first president. He spent a practical strategy, the essence of which was to fight for higher wages and better working conditions. Subsequently, these priorities have been adopted by all the trade union movement.
AFL union organizers faced with determined resistance from employers. Management preferred to discuss the issue of wages and other issues with each worker individually and often dismissed or blacklisted (agreement with other companies not to hire included in it) workers, who sided with the unions. Sometimes leadership managed to sign contracts with the workers, known as “yellow obligations” which forbade them to join unions. In the period from 1880 to 1932. government and the courts generally sympathetic to the direction or at best remained neutral. Under the pretext of restoring order government often sent troops to suppress the strikes. Stormy strikes in this period led to the deaths of many people, since hired a management entered into mortal combat with the union members.
In 1905, the labor movement has failed, when the Supreme Court said that the government can not restrict the number of working hours. The principle of “open enterprise”, ie right of workers to the rejection of forced entry into the union, also caused a large-scale conflict of laws.
By the end of the First World War the number of members of the AFL was 5 million. However, the twenties of the last century were not fruitful for trade unionists. A good time, had a lot of jobs, and wages grew steadily. Workers feel safe and free trade unions and often agreed with the opinion of management that generous personnel policy is a good alternative to the trade union movement. However, in 1929 came the Great Depression, and the good times came to an end.

Pension insurance and unemployment insurance


In the United States, employers play a major role in providing assistance to employees to create savings for pensions. About half of all people employed in the private sector, as well as most civil servants are covered by one or another pension scheme. The law does not require employers to have acted as sponsors of pension schemes. However, the Government encourages employers to the organization of such systems by providing large tax breaks to entrepreneurs who appoint pensions to employees and contribute to their pension fund.
Agency of the federal government to collect taxes the IRS sets most of the rules governing the pension system as one of the organs of the Ministry of Labor regulates their work in order to prevent abuse. Another federal agency PBGC insures benefits of retirees in the traditional private pension systems; a number of laws passed in the eighties and nineties of the last century, raised the premiums on this type of insurance and tightened requirements, charging employers responsible for the maintenance of a healthy financial state of their pension systems.
Over the last three decades of the XX century has changed considerably character organized employers pension systems. Many employers – especially small businesses – are no longer offering traditional pension systems with a “strictly defined-benefit”, providing guaranteed monthly pension payments based on years of service and salary. Instead, employers are increasingly offering pension systems with a “strictly defined-benefit pension fund.” In the case of a pension system with strictly defined-benefit pension fund, the employer is not responsible for how the investment of pension money and does not guarantee the payment of certain benefits. Moreover, offering similar pension system, employers are able to control their retirement savings (many employers also make their money in a pension fund, although the law does not require them to do so), and the workers are “attached” to these savings, even if just a few years change jobs. In addition, the amount of money that employees receive at retirement depends on the size of contributions to the pension fund and how well employees invest their own funds.
The number of private pension systems with strictly defined benefit declined from 170,000 in 1965 to 53,000 in 1997, while the number of systems with strictly defined-benefit pension fund has increased during this period from 461 000 to 647 000 – shift, which, in the opinion of many people, reflects a working environment that reduce the likelihood of establishing long-term relationships between employers and employees.
The federal government administers a number of types of pension schemes of their employees, including the military and civil servants, as well as disabled war veterans. However, the most important of the pension system, controlled by the government, is a welfare program that provides full benefits to workers and employees who retire and seek benefits at age 65 or older ages, or trimmed benefits to those who apply for benefits, retiring at the age of 62 to 65 years. Despite the fact that this program the federal agency, the Social Security Administration, its funds come from employers and employees, by levying a tax on their wages. Although social security is considered a “safety net”, very useful for seniors, most of them are of the opinion that it provides only a portion of their income needs after they stop working. Moreover, since the generation that was born in a period of rapid growth in the birth rate in the early postwar years, must retire at the beginning of the XXI century, in the nineties of the last century the policy began to show concern about the ability of the government to fulfill its commitments in the area social Security without cutting benefits or raising the tax levied on wages. At the turn of the new century, many Americans believed to healthy financing social welfare programs the most important domestic issue.
Many people – can also save part of their income in special accounts of the preferential taxation, known as individual retirement accounts (IRS) and the pension schemes Keogh.
Unlike social security, unemployment insurance, also introduced the Social Security Act of 1935, organized as a federal system, and the system state and provides support for the unemployed in the form of a basic income. Employees who are laid off or who become unemployed involuntarily, for any other reason (except for misconduct) receive as compensation income portion of their salary for one or another specific time frame.
Each state has its own program, but must comply with certain federal regulations. The size and the term of payment of weekly unemployment benefits are based on wages and previous experience of its employment. Employers pay taxes into a special fund, the operation of which is based on the experience of unemployment benefits on it among their own employees. The federal government also estimates the tax payable by him to the employer to the fund of assistance to the unemployed. States hope that surplus funds accumulated in periods of prosperity, will enable them to survive the decline in economic activity, but they can also borrow from the federal government or raise tax rates if their accumulated funds are not sufficient. States are required to extend the terms of benefits when unemployment increases and exceeds the “starting point.” The federal government can also give permission for a further extension of benefits in cases where there is a rise in unemployment during recessions, covering the costs of extending of the payment of the total federal income or introducing a special tax levied on employers. The question of whether to extend the time of payment of unemployment benefits, often takes on a political character, since any extension of these terms leads to a dramatic increase in federal spending, and may cause an increase in taxes.

Labour standards


One of the reasons for the success of the US economy, economists believe the flexibility of its labor markets. Employers claim that their competitiveness depends partly on the availability of freedom to hire and fire employees in the event of changes in market conditions. While that mobility has traditionally been a feature of American workers and employees.
Many of them are considering a career change as a means of improving their living conditions. At the same time, employers also traditionally recognize that employees achieve the best performance, if they believe that their work gives them a long-term opportunities for career advancement, and working as one of their main economic objectives of the guarantee of job security.
For the history of the American labor force is characterized by a tension between the two following sets of values – flexibility and long-term commitment. Since the mid-eighties of the last century, many analysts have come to the general conclusion that employers are paying increasing attention to flexibility. Perhaps this leads to a weakening of relations between employers and workers employed. Until now, a long list of state laws and federal laws protecting the rights of workers and employees. Some of the most important federal labor laws include the following:
Law Fair Labor Standards of 1938 establishes the minimum wage in the country, and the maximum number of hours that the employer can require the person in paid employment. The Act also contains rules for overtime and standards that aim to prevent abuses in the use of child labor. In 1963, the law in question was amended to prohibit discrimination against women in the establishment and payment of wages. Congress periodically adjusts the size of the minimum wage, although this question often causes political disputes. In 1999, the minimum wage was 5.5 US dollar per hour. However, the demand for labor was at that time so great that many employers – paid a salary in excess of the established minimum wage. Some states have introduced a higher level of the minimum wage.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides that employers have no right to resort to discriminatory practices in hiring or employment based on race, sex, religion or nationality.
The law prohibiting age discrimination in the hiring of 1967 protects workers middle-aged and older from discrimination in employment.
The Law on Health and Safety at Work of 1971 requires employers to maintain a safe working environment. According to this law, the Office of OSH (FEP) is developing standards jobs, conducts inspections in order to make assessments of compliance with these standards, lists the facts of violations and impose penalties on violators.
ERISA working or ERISA sets standards of pension systems operating in enterprises or in other non-governmental organizations. This law was passed in 1994
Family Law, leave for childbirth and family leave of 1993 guarantees to persons working as employees, unpaid maternity leave, leave for adoption or adoption and parental leave for seriously ill relatives.
Law of the Americans with Disabilities, adopted in 1990, guarantees the right to work for people with physical or mental disabilities.

The intensity of labor and rationing

EKO Stahl beliefert Osteuropa

Questions to determine the intensity of labor and provide on the basis of its performance equal stress norms of labor costs per unit of production are central to the practice of rationing.


Questions to determine the intensity of labor and provide on the basis of its performance equal stress norms of labor costs per unit of production are central to the practice of rationing.

The problem of labor intensity devoted a lot of research specialists in various disciplines – political economy, physiology and sociology, economics, organization and regulation of labor.

However, to date there is confusion in the original terms of “labor intensity”, there is no single point of view on its essence, metodoy evaluation indicators and their measurement.

However, the problems of labor intensity are relevant in the present.

Based on the study and analysis of the theory of the intensity of labor, researchers have come to different conclusions, the essence of which is as follows:

- Labor intensity determined by the amount of labor expended per unit of time, and hence an economic category;

- The intensity of labor is the degree of expenditure of labor as human energy (heat on the main exchange, to perform statistical and dynamic work, neuro-mental activity, overcoming the adverse working conditions) in the process of productive labor in the unit of time, and, therefore, is a physiological category ;

- The level of intensity of work, on the one hand, are largely determines its performance, as its factor, on the other – depends on the method and rate of consumption of the working force (energy) during work, which indicates a close relationship between economic and physiologic categories labor intensity .

The intensity of labor is associated with concepts such as the individual and the socially necessary labor time, the value of commodities, etc .; serviceability and fatigue, heaviness of labor, etc .; hard work and time standards, the pace of work, and others. Therefore, the problem of the intensity of labor takes place both in dealing with high efficiency of production, normal reproduction of labor power, and the like, as well as issues related to the organization, regulation, and improving payment working conditions.

In modern conditions, a specific role for the evaluation of the intensity of work in establishing and justifying labor standards for all categories of workers. Until now, many developments were controversial nature, and the outstanding issues have not received practical application.

In domestic practice, the valuation of labor ruling principle was to establish the costs of time required to perform a certain amount of work (functions). The level of labor intensity to be formed automatically as a result of the interaction of existing technical, organizational, economic, social, and psychophysiological factors of production. The organizer of the labor process does not control the intensity of labor, resulting in fluctuations in the levels of tension were the norms, the emergence of “favorable” and “unfavorable” for the employee works, the serious shortcomings in pay etc.

Science and practice has developed the following key indicators to assess the intensity of labor.

Temporal characteristics of working time (the degree of employment an employee during working hours or “density-time”), defined as the ratio of employment (congestion) active in the operational or unit shipments in time at mnogostanochnom service – time cycle, removable fund of working time. This approach makes it possible to measure the intensity of labor, not only in terms of working time biggest breaks in the labor process, but also on the basis of analyzing the structure of employed workers, ie by assessing the strength of existing norms of labor costs. However, the employment rate of the active work is essentially characterized by an extensive factor labor. This fact demonstrates the need for the simultaneous use of other indicators for a more objective assessment of the intensity of labor.

The pace of work, ie the speed of the labor operations or rate of labor movements and actions in the unit time. It is a measure of the intensity of a particular measure of labor and its value recommended by holding timing, filming of the labor process and its components, or other types of research. An indicator of the pace of work, expressed in absolute units (values) are trace element ratios of temporary labor movements. This is – the minimum time labor movements of the average worker in the labor process mainly performed without compromising health for a long period of time. The amount of time does not depend on the characteristics of the process and equipment of the external conditions and circumstances. To estimate the rate of recommended standard rate of work, provided the domestic base system microelement time standards. This pace of work is adequate execution speed microcell base “helping hand” with a small degree of control at a distance of 40 cm. At a speed of 93 cm / sec. To justify his psychophysiological research conducted by which fatigue was evaluated employees in a production environment. The base system of micronutrients regulatory standards laid labor intensity.

Problems functional organizations


Functional management currently holds a dominant position nor once proved its effectiveness over the last two hundred years. Nevertheless, currently functional organization more and more experience difficulties generated cross-functional nature of the communication, for which the eye previously closed. In the context of the client economy these organizational issues are forcing managers to actively seek alternative management functionality.
In the functional organization of the individual structural units, performing separate operations through business processes that have a very narrow view of the problem being solved and are not interested in what does not concern them directly. All subdivisions are trying to effectively do their job, a job that is rigidly mounted defined functional responsibilities, but the organization as a whole remains ineffective.
Very often there is a situation where the effective implementation of a structural subdivision of its responsibilities (eg, minimization of costs under this structural unit) can lead to a significant deterioration in the effectiveness of the organization as a whole.
One of the main problems of functional organizations is the need for cooperation and coordination among its business units, the number of which may reach several tens or even hundreds. Therefore in such organizations exist excessive amount inspectors, supervisors, line managers forced to perform duties not bringing any added value.
Often these structural units begin to compete, and sometimes conflict in the struggle for the various (human, material, financial) resources, for the attention of management. It lost a lot of time, energy and intellect without much benefit to the company, and sometimes her and harm.
Nature of functional control is such that the top management of the organization, carrying out strategic planning and management company that can analyze and affect the implementation of macro-processes in general, but on the optimization of the set of elementary processes implemented in the company he has neither the strength nor the time. The persons responsible for the individual through process (from start to finish) in the function of no. Objectively occurring in the functional processes of the company are outside the focus of its managers.
Exchange of information, usually occurs vertically long path, due to which a valuable and necessary to implement a business process, information is lost, distorted only obsolete.
Numerous actions implemented, for example, during the execution of the sales order, not organized, that is, not connected by a single organizational design. They have no coherent plan, encompassing scheme that would accurately prescribed, by whom, when and where to be met or that particular operation. Transfer of work from one structural unit to another is fraught with unimaginable delays. In the same situation take different measures, people improvise and work on the mood. In many functional organization of most operations can be compared with the Brownian motion, in which the interaction of the particles occurs completely randomly. And this chaos can only curb the reengineering of business processes and the transition to a process organization.

Business processes. What is it?


Process – is any operating or administrative system that converts resources into desired results. In the business literature, there are many definitions of the process and the business process, which does not contradict, but rather complement each other.

In the simplest case, the process – a stream of work, passing from one person to another, and for more complex processes – a stream of work, passing from one organizational unit to another. Process is completed, in terms of content, time, and logical sequence, the sequence of operations, ie, elementary actions needed to handle the economic significance of the object.
International quality standards ISO 9000 family provide a process definition as the activity using resources, and managed to transform inputs into outputs. The output of one process often forms the input to the next, and the processes themselves are numerous and interrelated. In a more recent definition of the name of the system of total quality management – TQM process is presented as an organized activity designed to generate a preset to a specific user exit, while ensuring the necessary input process.
The concept of a business process as a special process, which serves as the implementation of the main objectives of the enterprise (business purposes), and describes the central sphere of its activity, presented in his works Nordsieck – one of the first authors of the idea of reorientation structure of the enterprise processes.
Business process – this one, several or multiple nested processes (internal steps of activity), which ends with the creation of the product, the customer required. Thus, the output or result of the business process are always the information, services or products requested by the customer. In this business process may have several outputs.
The term, which suggested that M. Hammer – the author of the concept of business process reengineering, reads as follows: business process is an organized set of interrelated activities that together provide a valuable result for the client. It is assumed here that the process – is a set of actions, not a single action. In turn, all the actions included in the process, not random and not arbitrary, but are interrelated and organized, and only together can give the desired effect.
From the point of view of the implementation of the activities of the business process (macro process) – is associated range of activities implemented by the specified requirements and ensures the achievement of the desired end result (planning, design, procurement, production, trade).
Definition of the process will be more complete if it complemented by a series of clarifying the concepts:
• login process – resource (equipment and supplies)
• the output of the process – the result (information, products or services)
• boundaries of the process – the start and end point of fixation process,
• border entry process – precedes the first step of the process,
• border exit process – is the last step of the process,
• Primary input process – the main resource
• secondary entrance process – supporting resource
• the primary output of the process – the main result of the process,
• secondary output of the process – a side effect of the process.